Dhanvantari Ayurveda Center  Michael Dick, Ayurvedic Practitioner, Leesburg, Florida    e-mail: md@ayurveda-florida.com

 

     

The Ayurvedist®

Volume V Issue 3                                                                                                                   July 2008  

Health and Science in the News

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                The Angel of the Waters, found in Central Park, NYC is symbolic of the healing effects of water. This is true in the West as in the East, now and into the ancient past.

In This Issue  Health in the News and More....

1

Folk Medicine

2

General News

3

Scientific Studies

4

Dietary and Behavioral Interactions that May Pose Health Problems

 

FOLK MEDICINE (People's Pharmacy)

 

Cinnamon extract may help control type 2 diabetes--shows improved insulin sensitivity and blood sugar control

 

Activia yogurt (from Dannon) eliminates flatus--probioitic Bifidus regularis helps digest milk sugar, lactose

 

Bananas relieve indigestion--a bite or two after meals relieves indigestion; powder also works

 

Castor oil to a bumped/damaged area seems to prevent bruising and hematomas

 

Toenail fungus?-- try hydrogen peroxide applied directly to infection

 

A new / different dental detoxification protocol: http://quantafoods.com/downloads/dental_detoxification_protocol.pdf

 

Norway, Sweden, Denmark ban mercury amalgam fillings. (Source: DAMS' Dental Truth, Feb 2008)

 

General News:

Since 1980's the total of medical schools using animal laboratories has fallen from over 100 to 10, with no school using dogs at all. WU, NYMC, St. Louis U, Duke, and Texas A&M are the latest to drop these practices. Source: Good Medicine Winter 2008

 

In the UK cancer studies are now carried out with  human cancer tissue and body fluids. This is making for sounder conclusions in research by moving away from "animal models."

 

Students can now do virtual dissection on vertebrate anatomy by means of a digital program called Digital Frog II.

 

The Physician's Committee for Responsible Medicine (PCRM) has prepared a 900-page book: Nutrition Guide for Clinicians which it is distributing free of charge to all second-year medical students annually. It will be updated periodically to reflect changes in data and experience. It provides basic information on about 100 diseases and conditions, including risk factors and typical treatments, and also provides evidence-based information on how nutrition plays a role in prevention and treatment.

 

Scientific Studies:

Analysis of results from the massive Nurses Health Study I, II shows that those partaking in whole grain diets are less subject to type II diabetes. Source: PLos Med. 2007;4(8), 1385-1395

 

Atkins diet compared with Ornish diet and South Beach diet (n=18) (t=30 days), showed increased LDL, inflammation associated with blood clots, reduced blood vessel dilation suspected to cause long-term damage to blood vessels. The Ornish diet reduced LDL by over 25 pts while the South Beach diet lowered LDL only 10 pts. Source: Presentation in American Heart Assoc.'s Scientific Session, 11/6/07, Orlando, FL.

 

Western diet linked to increased birth defects, so concluded researchers in Netherlands (n=381). Diet is high in organ meat, red meat, processed meat, pizza, legumes, potatoes, French fries, condiments, and mayonnaise but low in fruits. Source: Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110: 378-384

 

 

The following abstracts have been chosen because they deal with the area of free-radical scavenging. Each article contributes something different to our understanding of this area--generally referred to as antioxidant activity. One aspect to note is that there are numerous tests for this function. Another aspect to note is that the body makes use of antioxidants in two different ways: enzymatic and non-enzymatic. One activates or works on processes involving enzymes and the other works with phytochemicals such as flavonoids, etc. Foods and food supplements that do these things are generally referred to as functional foods or functional medicines. Note also that cooking and other aspects bear on potency of effect.

 

 

Antioxidant Activity of Wheat Sprouts Extract In Vitro: Inhibition of DNA Oxidative Damage
JFS: Food Chemistry and Toxicology
G. FALCIONI, D. FEDELI, L. TIANO, I. CALZUOLA, L. MANCINELLI, V. MARSILI, AND G. GIANFRANCESCHI


ABSTRACT: Wheat sprouts contain a remarkable level of various antioxidants. A fraction containing high amounts of powerful antioxidant glycoside molecules has been isolated. In a dose- dependent manner, this fraction reduces the lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence produced by the superoxide anion generated from the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, thus indicating a superoxide-scavenging activity. A protective effect of this wheat sprouts fraction on the oxidative damage of pBR322 plasmid DNA induced by Fenton reaction (Fe2+/H2O2) was subsequently demonstrated. Moreover, the results reported here show that the amount of antioxidant compound strongly increases during the germination phase, while scantly present in the wheat germ, and virtually absent in the young wheat plant.
Keywords: wheat sprouts, antioxidants, chemiluminescence, DNA damage

 


Comparison of Antioxidant Potency of Commonly Consumed Polyphenol-Rich Beverages in the United States

J. Agric. Food Chem. XXXX, xxx, 000 A
NAVINDRA P. SEERAM,† MICHAEL AVIRAM,§ YANJUN ZHANG,†
SUSANNE M. HENNING,† LYDIA FENG,† MARK DREHER,# AND DAVID HEBER*,†
Center for Human Nutrition, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles,
California 90095; Lipid Research Laboratory, Technion Faculty of Medicine, Rambam Medical
Center, Haifa, Israel; and POM Wonderful, LLC, Los Angeles, California 90064


A number of different beverage products claim to have antioxidant potency due to their perceived high content of polyphenols. Basic and applied research indicates that pomegranate juice (PJ), produced from the Wonderful variety of Punica granatum fruits, has strong antioxidant activity and related health benefits. Although consumers are familiar with the concept of free radicals and antioxidants, they are often misled by claims of superior antioxidant activity of different beverages, which are usually based only on testing of a limited spectrum of antioxidant activities. There is no available direct comparison of PJ’s antioxidant activity to those of other widely available polyphenol¬rich beverage products using a comprehensive variety of antioxidant tests. The present study applied (1) four tests of antioxidant potency [Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), total oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), free radical scavenging capacity by 2,2-diphenyl-1 -picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)]; (2) a test of antioxidant functionality, that is, inhibition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by peroxides and malondialdehyde methods; and (3) evaluation of the total polyphenol content [by gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)] of polyphenol-rich beverages in the marketplace. The beverages included several different brands as follows: apple juice (3), açaí juice (3), black cherry juice (3), blueberry juice (3), cranberry juice (3), Concord grape juice (3), orange juice (3), red wines (3), iced tea beverages (10) [black tea (3), green tea (4), white tea (3)], and a major PJ available in the U.S. market. An overall antioxidant potency composite index was calculated by assigning each test equal weight. PJ had the greatest antioxidant potency composite index among the beverages tested and was at least 20% greater than any of the other beverages tested. Antioxidant potency, ability to inhibit LDL oxidation, and total polyphenol content were consistent in classifying the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenol-rich beverages in the following order: PJ > red wine > Concord grape juice> blueberry juice > black cherry juice, açaí juice, cranberry juice> orange juice, iced tea beverages, apple juice. Although in vitro antioxidant potency does not prove in vivo biological activity, there is also consistent clinical evidence of antioxidant potency for the most potent beverages including both PJ and red wine.

 


 

Effect of different cooking methods on the antioxidant activity of some vegetables from Pakistan
International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2008, 43, 560–567

Bushra Sultana,1 Farooq Anwar1* & Shahid Iqbal2
1 Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
2 Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan


Summary The effects of different cooking methods (boiling, frying and microwave cooking) on the antioxidant activity of some selected vegetables (peas, carrot, spinach, cabbage, cauliflower, yellow turnip and white turnip) were assessed by measuring the total phenolic contents (TPC), reducing power and percentage inhibition in linoleic acid system. TPC (gallic acid equivalents g/100 g of dry weight) and reducing power of the methanolic extracts of raw-, microwaved-, boiled- and fried vegetables ranged 0.333–2.97, 0.52–2.68, 0.48–2.08, 1.00–2.02 and 0.391–2.24, 0.822–1.10, 0.547–1.16, 0.910–4.07, respectively. The level of inhibition of peroxidation ranged 71.4–89.0, 66.4–87.3, 73.2–89.2 and 77.4–91.3%, respectively. Antioxidant activity of the vegetables examined was appreciably affected because of varying cooking treatments. TPC of vegetables, generally, decreased by boiling, frying and microwave cooking. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in reducing power as a result of frying. However, boiling and microwave cooking did not affect reducing power. Inhibition of peroxidation increased by boiling and frying, whereas, in contrast it was decreased by microwave cooking. The results of the present investigation showed that all the cooking methods affected the antioxidant properties of the vegetables; however, microwave treatment exhibited more deleterious effects when compared with those of other treatments. Thus an appropriate method might be sought for the processing of such vegetables to retain their antioxidant components at maximum level.
Keywords: Antioxidant activity, cooking treatments, percentage inhibition of peroxidation, reducing power, total phenolic contents, vegetables.

 

 

Preliminary characterisation of peach cultivars for their antioxidant capacity
International Journal of Food Science and Technology 2008, 43, 810–815
Silvia Tavarini,1 Elena Degl’Innocenti,1 Damiano Remorini,2 Rossano Massai2 & Lucia Guidi1* 1 Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2 Dipartimento di Coltivazione e Difesa delle Specie Legnose ‘G. Scaramuzzi’, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy
 

Summary: Eleven peach cultivars (white- and yellow-flesh peaches, nectarines and canning clingstone peaches) were assayed for their antioxidant capacity and their content of some important organic compounds as well as vitamin C, carotenoids and phenols. Antioxidant capacity, determined by FRAP assay, varied between genotypes. Those with the highest value of Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) were Federica and Springcrest. Antioxidant capacity was correlated to the amount of organic components with significant differences among the cultivars. In some case, antioxidant capacity was related to phenol content, as in yellow–flesh peaches. These results suggest the importance of genotype for determining antioxidant capacity, which, in turn, is related to the organic constituents, such as phenols, vitamin C and carotenoids.
Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, fruits, peach, phenols.

 

 

A review of the interaction among dietary antioxidants and reactive oxygen species

Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 18 (2007) 567–579
Harold E. Seifrieda,4, Darrell E. Andersonb, Evan I. Fishera, John A. Milnera aDivision of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20862, USA bThe Scientific Consulting Group, Inc. Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA
 


Abstract
During normal cellular activities, various processes inside of cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some of the most common ROS are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide ion (O2 ), and hydroxide radical (OH ). These compounds, when present in a high enough concentration, can damage cellular proteins and lipids or form DNA adducts that may promote carcinogenic activity. The purpose of antioxidants in a physiological setting is to prevent ROS concentrations from reaching a high-enough level within a cell that damage may occur. Cellular antioxidants may be enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) or nonenzymatic (glutathione, thiols, some vitamins and metals, or phytochemicals such as isoflavones, polyphenols, and flavanoids). Reactive oxygen species are a potential double-edged sword in disease prevention and promotion. Whereas generation of ROS once was viewed as detrimental to the overall health of the organism, advances in research have shown that ROS play crucial roles in normal physiological processes including response to growth factors, the immune response, and apoptotic elimination of damaged cells. Notwithstanding these beneficial functions, aberrant production or regulation of ROS activity has been demonstrated to contribute to the development of some prevalent diseases and conditions, including cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The topic of antioxidant usage and ROS is currently receiving much attention because of studies linking the use of some antioxidants with increased mortality in primarily higher-risk populations and the lack of strong efficacy data for protection against cancer and heart disease, at least in populations with adequate baseline dietary consumption. In normal physiological processes, antioxidants effect signal transduction and regulation of proliferation and the immune response. Reactive oxygen species have been linked to cancer and CVD, and antioxidants have been considered promising therapy for prevention and treatment of these diseases, especially given the tantalizing links observed between diets high in fruits and vegetables (and presumably antioxidants) and decreased risks for cancer.
(C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Review; Reactive oxygen species; Antioxidants; Cancer; Cardiovascular disease

 

 

A review of the interaction among dietary antioxidants and reactive oxygen species
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 18 (2007) 567–579
Harold E. Seifrieda,4, Darrell E. Andersonb, Evan I. Fishera, John A. Milnera aDivision of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD 20862, USA bThe Scientific Consulting Group, Inc. Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA


Abstract
During normal cellular activities, various processes inside of cells produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Some of the most common ROS are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide ion (O2 ), and hydroxide radical (OH ). These compounds, when present in a high enough concentration, can damage cellular proteins and lipids or form DNA adducts that may promote carcinogenic activity. The purpose of antioxidants in a physiological setting is to prevent ROS concentrations from reaching a high-enough level within a cell that damage may occur. Cellular antioxidants may be enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) or nonenzymatic (glutathione, thiols, some vitamins and metals, or phytochemicals such as isoflavones, polyphenols, and flavanoids). Reactive oxygen species are a potential double-edged sword in disease prevention and promotion. Whereas generation of ROS once was viewed as detrimental to the overall health of the organism, advances in research have shown that ROS play crucial roles in normal physiological processes including response to growth factors, the immune response, and apoptotic elimination of damaged cells. Notwithstanding these beneficial functions, aberrant production or regulation of ROS activity has been demonstrated to contribute to the development of some prevalent diseases and conditions, including cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The topic of antioxidant usage and ROS is currently receiving much attention because of studies linking the use of some antioxidants with increased mortality in primarily higher-risk populations and the lack of strong efficacy data for protection against cancer and heart disease, at least in populations with adequate baseline dietary consumption. In normal physiological processes, antioxidants effect signal transduction and regulation of proliferation and the immune response. Reactive oxygen species have been linked to cancer and CVD, and antioxidants have been considered promising therapy for prevention and treatment of these diseases, especially given the tantalizing links observed between diets high in fruits and vegetables (and presumably antioxidants) and decreased risks for cancer.
(c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Review; Reactive oxygen species; Antioxidants; Cancer; Cardiovascular disease

 

 

Effects of the ‘live high–train low’ method on prooxidant/antioxidant balance on elite athletes
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2008), 1–7& 2008 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 0954-3007/08
V Pialoux1, R Mounier1, E Rock2, A Mazur2, L Schmitt3, J-P Richalet4, P Robach5, J Brugniaux4, J Coudert1 and N Fellmann1 1Laboratoire de Biologie des Activite´s Physiques et Sportives, Faculte´ de Me´decine, Universite´ d’Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, France; 2Equipe Stress Me´tabolique et Micronutriments, Unite´ de Nutrition Humaine UMR 1019, INRA, Saint Gene`s Champanelle, France; 3Centre National de Ski Nordique, ID Jacobeys, Pre´manon, France; 4Laboratoire Re´ponses cellulaires et fonctionnelles a` l’hypoxie, Universite´ Paris 13, Bobigny, France and 5Ecole Nationale de Ski et d’Alpinisme, Chamonix, France


Background/Objectives: We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to hypoxia (3 h at 3000 m) increased oxidative stress markers. Thus, by using the ‘living high–training low’ (LHTL) method, we further hypothesized that intermittent hypoxia associated with endurance training alters the prooxidant/antioxidant balance. Subjects/Methods: Twelve elite athletes from the Athletic French Federation were subjected to 18-day endurance training. They were divided into two groups: one group (control group) trained at 1200m and lived in hypoxia (2500–3000m simulated altitude) and the second group trained and lived at 1200 m. The subjects performed an acute hypoxic test (10 min at 4800 m) before and immediately after the training. Plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehydes (MDA), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), lipid-soluble antioxidants normalized for triacylglycerols, and cholesterol and retinol were measured before and after the 4800m tests. Results: After the training, MDA and AOPP concentrations were decreased in response to the 4800m test only for the control group. Eighteen days of LHTL induced a significant decrease of all antioxidant markers (FRAP, P¼0.01; a-tocopherol, P¼0.04; b-carotene, P¼0.01 and lycopene, P¼0.02) for the runners. This imbalance between antioxidant and prooxidant might result from insufficient intakes in vitamins A and E. Conclusions: The LHTL model characterized by the association of aerobic exercises and intermittent resting hypoxia exposures decreased the antioxidant status whereas the normoxic endurance training induced preconditioning mechanisms in response to the 4800m test.
Keywords: intermittent hypoxia; endurance training; oxidized lipids; AOPP; FRAP; a-tocopherol

 

 

 

A Comparative Study of Flavonoid Compounds, Vitamin C, and Antioxidant Properties of Baby Leaf

2330 J. Agric. Food Chem. 2008, 56, 2330–2340 Brassicaceae Species
ASCENSIÓN MARTÍNEZ-SÁNCHEZ, ANGEL GIL-IZQUIERDO, MARÍA I. GIL, AND FEDERICO FERRERES*
Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Food Science and Technology Department, CEBAS-CSIC, P.O. Box 164, Espinardo, Murcia E-30100, Spain


A comparative study of antioxidant compounds, flavonoids and vitamin C, and also antioxidant activity was carried out in four species of Brassicaceae vegetables used for salads: watercress (Nasturtium officinale R. Br.), mizuna [Brassica rapa L. subsp. nipposinica (L.H. Bailey) Haneltand], wild rocket [Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC.], and salad rocket [Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.]. The characterization of individual phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS-ESI in watercress and mizuna completes the polyphenol study previously reported for wild rocket and salad rocket. The qualitative study of flavonoids in watercress leaves showed a characteristic glycosylation pattern with rhamnose at the 7 position. Isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-glucoside was identified in mizuna leaves and may be considered a chemotaxonomical marker in some B. rapa subspecies. Brassicaceae species showed differences in the quantitative study of flavonoids, and the highest content was detected in watercress leaves. Watercress and wild rocket leaves had the highest content of vitamin C. The antioxidant activity evaluated by different methods (ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays) showed a high correlation level with the content of polyphenols and vitamin C. In conclusion, the Brassicaceae leaves studied, watercress, mizuna, wild rocket, and salad rocket, presented a large variability in the composition and content of antioxidant compounds. These baby leaf species are good dietary sources of antioxidants with an important variability of bioactive compounds.

KEYWORDS: Wild rocket; salad rocket; watercress; mizuna; phenolics; mass spectrometry; antioxidant activity

 

 

 

The induction of human superoxide dismutase and catalase in vivo: A fundamentally new approach to antioxidant therapy
Sally K. Nelson a,b, Swapan K. Bose a, Gary K. Grunwald c, Paul Myhill d, Joe M. McCord a,b,d,*
a Webb-Waring Institute for Cancer, Aging and Antioxidant Research, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
b Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
c Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, University of Colorado Denver Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA
d Lifeline Therapeutics, Denver, CO, USA

 

Abstract
A composition consisting of extracts of five widely studied medicinal plants (Protandim) was administered to healthy human subjects ranging in age from 20 to 78 years. Individual ingredients were selected on the basis of published findings of induction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and/or catalase in rodents in vivo, combined with evidence of decreasing lipid peroxidation. Each ingredient was present at a dosage sufficiently low to avoid any accompanying unwanted pharmacological effects. Blood was analyzed before supplementation and after 30 and 120 days of supplementation (675 mg/day). Erythrocytes were assayed for SOD and catalase, and plasma was assayed for lipid peroxidation products as thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), as well as uric acid, C-reactive protein, and cholesterol (total, LDL, and HDL). Before supplementation, TBARS showed a strong age-dependent increase. After 30 days of supplementation, TBARS declined by an average of 40% ( p = 0.0001) and the age- ependent increase was eliminated. By 120 days, erythrocyte SOD increased by 30% ( p < 0.01) and catalase by 54% ( p < 0.002). We conclude that modest induction of the catalytic antioxidants SOD and catalase may be a much more effective approach than supplementation with antioxidants (such as vitamins C and E) that can, at best, stoichiometrically scavenge a very small fraction of total oxidant production.
(C) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Superoxide dismutase; Catalase; Lipid peroxidation; TBARS; Antioxidant; Protandim; Free radicals

 

 

 Incompatibility—The Classical Ayurvedic Literature--A Dietary and Behavioral Listing

 

Caraka lists 18 types of Incompatibility – Viruddhatva  (See Sastry, pp. 344-349 for elaboration of these). Caraka lists many diseases that are the result of incompatibility (Ca.Su. 26.102), e.g.: impotency, blindness, herpes, ascites, erysipelas, schizophrenia, fistula-in-ano, syncope, stupor, flatulence, throat pain, anemia, autoimmunity, leucoderma, skin diseases, malabsorption syndromes, edema, inflammation, hyperacidity, fever, rhinitis, hereditary problems, and even death. The following are Caraka’s listing of 18 distinctive deleterious combinations:

  1. Desha Viruddha --  improper to use certain items in certain climate zones, etc. e.g., dry and sharp substances in hot dry area (jangala), oily and cold items in anupa areas (wet climes)
  2. Kala Viruddha – impropriety based upon time; e.g. cold and dry substances in winter, hot in summer, etc.
  3. Agni Viruddha – overeating during weak digestion
  4. Matra Viruddha – incompatibility based upon proportions (equal honey and ghee, e.g.)
  5. Satmya Viruddha – inappropriate for habits or customs
  6. Dosha Viruddha – aggravating to doshas
  7. Samskara Viruddha – inappropriate procedures, e.g., cooking peacock meat in castor oil
  8. Virya Viruddha – incompatible potency, e.g., milk and fish
  9. Koshta Viruddha – incompatibility based upon condition of GIT, e.g,. mild laxatives in severe constipation
  10. Avastha Viruddha – incompatibility according to condition, e.g., vata increasing substances in severe debility or kapha increasing items for person who is sleepy or lazy
  11. Krama Viruddha – violation of certain behaviors, e.g., suppression of urges
  12. Parihara Viruddha – following eating certain things are to be avoided, e.g., pork followed by hot water
  13. Upacara Viruddha – after eating certain foods particular foods are to be eaten to avoid problems, e.g., following ghee hot water should be taken (not cold water)
  14. Paka Viruddha – cooking too long or too little, e.g. undercooked rice or over roasted rice
  15. Samyoga Viruddha – certain combinations are to be avoided, e.g., milk and sour substances
  16. Krit Viruddha – incompatibility for mind and heart, e.g., fears phobias
  17. Sampat Viruddha – incompatibility based upon quality, e.g., tastes opposite to their normal tastes
  18. Vidhi Viruddha – incompatibility based upon rules of eating, e.g., eating alone, laughing, talking, etc.

 

It may be inferred from this listing that there exist many ways which food items can be harmful. When examining these more closely it will be found that many are energetic antagonisms (hot versus cold, etc.) while others will have their basis in chemistry (cooking peacock in castor oil). Some combinations are based upon exact proportions of similarity (honey and ghritam) and others of contrasting extremes to the body (dry, rough). Some combinations become problematic only because of the transformations they undergo during the digestive process (vipaka). Caraka discusses tastes and declares that a meal of a single taste would digest most easily (best). This statement is likely based upon direct experience and not upon some theoretical proposition. Ironically, Caraka goes on to declare that a meal of all 6 tastes is fundamentally the most prudent. A diet of meals having only a single taste would not be capable of supporting healthy physiology for long.

 

Another of the classical writers, Sushruta, discusses the same topic but gives a different grouping or classification of the types of incompatibility. His listing has only 5 categories. Vagbhata’s offering is simply a listing of incompatible items. It is interesting to note that all writers advise against fish and milk. Many of the items listed are unknown today or are unlikely to be experienced in the West.

 

Bibliography

  1. Shastry, J L N, Dravyaguna Vijñana, Chaukhambha, Varanasi, India, 2002, pp. 83-84

  2. Sharma, PV. Translator, Caraka Samhita, Chowkhambha, Varanasi, India, 1992

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


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