THE ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE PURSUIT OF HEALTH
The purpose of this article is to give the reader a sense of the importance of mental processes and experiences and their relationship to forming what we call knowledge. Moreover, we want to show a relationship of physiology, psychology, and philosophy, or to put it another way--the interaction of mental, emotional, and physical aspects of life. One great seer has described knowledge as "organizing power." There are some interesting implications for this statement which we will explore throughout this paper. We will look briefly at an ancient model of psychology with its operative components of mind, intellect, and ego. We shall try to show that the product of mental functioning in its various forms of sensing, thinking, and even meditating give rise to structures and behaviors which may be both nurturing or destructive to life.
While it is not the intention of this paper to discuss the merits of particular models we do want to bring to the reader's awareness that models are vehicles for gaining understanding. Knowledge and understanding are couched in the framework of models. Everything we think we know ultimately is in the language of a model. A model is an idealized / abstract version of an imaginable universe—a way of thinking about reality. It is important to understand that models are not intended to be exact representations of reality. They are a kind of map for orienting in reality but they are not the reality itself. Attachment to one model or another can in fact produce a kind of blindness to understandings which could be gained by the use of another model. Further, this article is written from the perspective of the Ayurvedic paradigm. Its appropriateness for understanding a broad range of issues is implicitly assumed, but it is not the only model nor is it deemed superior to all others for all issues. Ayurveda is, as a matter of fact, an amalgamation of numerous scientific, philosophical (6 darshanas—sankhya, vaisheshika, yoga, nyaya, mimamsa, vedanta) and medical models. In one sense, each represents a manner (mode) and a path (method) for understanding reality.
Just what is knowledge? A modern dictionary suggests three elements are involved: awareness, acquaintance (familiarity), and understanding. We will be discussing these aspects in the course of this article. Ancient authoritative texts describe three types of knowledge: objective, authoritative, and subjective, which we will be discussing in the course of this article as well. As an aside we note that in the Vedic spiritual tradition of India, there are four steps in the pursuit of knowledge—student (first 25 years of life), householder (second 25 years of life), forest dweller (third quarter of life), detached / sanyasin/samadhi (final stage of life). This first stage represents pursuit of practical life knowledge (trades, skills, etc.), followed by utilization of that first period knowledge in effort to perfect it. Then retirement follows where husband and wife retire from active life and even take refuge in the forests for spiritual study and contemplation. Finally, the individual becomes Self-absorbed in samadhi for the remaining years of life.
In another way of thinking, knowledge is a process—an evolution of understanding in a patterned way. One example of this process is given in the ancient Greek thought of Socrates—thesis, antithesis, synthesis. This is described as taking a position or making an assertion about a thing, challenging or criticizing it with countervailing evidence, for example, and then resolving the conflict in a new statement, called a synthesis. Plato posited another way of looking at this process consisting of 4 steps: 1) an uncritical acceptance of sensory experiences followed by 2) reasoning/critical thought, creativity, describable by the notion of common sense, 3) pure thinking, characterized by abstraction and idealization, particularly facilitated by study of mathematics and geometry, 4) and finally, true philosophical thought, characterized by the ability to have an appreciation of one’s humanity/ divinity, which is implicitly inseparable from the perception on the mundane physical body, etc. Plato founded the academy—an institution for learning, which legacy became the model for transmitting knowledge in the Western world.
According to ancient Indian thinkers in one school knowledge is gained by four methods: perception, inference, authority (verbal, textual, etc.), and comparison. For our purposes we will primarily consider knowledge from perceptual experiences. Knowledge is the product of the process of perception, the result of experiencing or sensing something, which has been perceived and processed by the mind.. One Ayurvedic model describes the process of perception in this way. A subtle energy goes out of the mind through a subtle sense organ, through the gross organ of perception and engages something in the environment. This may be called attention or perception acquisition. The energy returns in the size, form, and qualities of the object through the gross organ, then the subtle sense organ and produces a sensation in the mind. The mind then presents this to the self or soul in the form of understanding. (This process has considerable variation among the philosophies of India and even the concept of mind varies considerably.) This process is an important pre-condition of gaining knowledge. But once the attention is focused and the senses make contact with some sense object and a sensation occurs in the mind then we can say that awareness begins. Awareness in this sensory mode is a pre-condition for familiarity and understanding. If we have no awareness of something then we can not become familiar with it and understand it. Therefore central to knowing is having sensory experiences and becoming aware of the experience. Knowledge can be gained by reasoning (syllogisms, comparisons, inference, deduction) but this still presupposes some experience which is to be understood.
The motives for seeking knowledge are several. One is predictability; i.e., uncertainty about change or progress of life produces discomfort while predictability brings comfort. Another has its roots in sensation. For example, experiences of the sense organs are dazzling to the mind; that is, many experiences create an impression in the mind which creates desire for more (or less) of the same experience...knowledge which is pleasure oriented. As Ayurveda holds that these impressions stay with mind through all its incarnations these may exist from other lives as well as from the present one. Another reason can be explained by the notion of needs. Just as Maslow, the modern psychologist, believed that man has a hierarchy of needs Ayurveda also holds that there is a hierarchy of needs--seven in all. In ascending importance they are: 1) biological survival, 2)identity and procreation, 3) ambition, 4)love, 5) communication and will, 6) intuition, truth, 7) spiritual realization.
When our experiences begin to give rise to a sense of order, organization, predictability we are able to catalogue them and to see patterns of interaction. This patterning is understanding. Without order and predictability chaos would prevail. There could be no understanding. When Awareness and understanding are present then they promote acquaintance or familiarity and expectation. The sun rises and sets every day, and we count on this. We plan our lives around this happening. We gain this information through our senses and call this an objective mode of knowing. Objective means objects of the senses (sound, touch, sight, taste, smell) are experienced by the senses. In most respects we regard these objects as things of a physical nature but energy in its various forms give rise to sensory experiences as well, sound is an example. Objective knowledge implies there exists an opportunity for broad agreement of interpretation of specified things and events...there is a consensus for what may be called true.
That which we call modern science aptly expresses what objective knowledge is about. Scientific knowledge is systematic, useful, verifiable, comprehensive, universal, and valid. Through its methodology of repetitive examination and controlled variation we learn how nature operates, i.e., cause and effect...the patterns we referred to above. This way of knowing is frequently described as left- brain functioning, rational, linear, logical thinking. It provides a consistency of approach to solving issues. It is mechanical and regular in style. Computers use this exclusively. Objective knowledge is likely to be pursued not as an end in itself but for its utility in practical matters of life--predictability, comfort, satisfaction of lower needs.
Authoritative knowledge (atihya) is that term which suggests a way to gain awareness of something without having any exposure to it personally. We refer to this kind of knowing when we use terms such as "tradition" and "school of thought." Examples of this type of knowledge are many but important ones include The Bible, The Koran, The Vedas, etc. We could have chosen Greek architecture or Japanese flower arranging as well, but here we are interested in knowledge relating to life. These traditions imply that others have had experiences and have developed an understanding of them. One need not have personal, objective experience with regard to a matter, yet one can learn about it from someone else's experience. This is indirect perception but a valid way of knowing. And of course this knowledge must stand the test of experience for us, as well as, for our forebears. Some things are better learned this way than by personal experience. For example, it's better to learn from an authority of the ill-effects from poor diet, or that snake venom is poisonous, than from personal experience. This kind of knowledge promotes awareness first and then more understanding and acquaintance or familiarity come with our personal experience. Authoritative knowledge may be a combination of all types of knowledge but its mode of knowing is indirect.
Subjective knowledge is that which is gained without use of the senses but through a functioning of mind we call attending or contemplating. Ancient seers could direct attention inward and become aware of their own inner
consciousness. They could perceive vast and fundamental truths about the nature of reality during these experiences. We often refer to this practice as meditation--going beyond thought to its very source--to the field of pure knowledge, transcendental Consciousness. It is the experience of being aware of awareness, itself. In the spiritual traditions of the East this experience is called transcending, Self-Realization, and in a permanent state--enlightenment. This kind of knowledge is likely to be pursued as an end...for its own sake. There is less concern for its use because the most important experience and goal in life is to experience oneself as the totality--the infinite, eternal, and divine.
Self, here, is used to denote a universal principle and is synonymous with the field of pure awareness (Consciousness) in all its attributes--omniscience, omnipresence, omnipotence, eternal, etc. This is a thinking, sensing, creating field. In this tradition the Self expresses as the entire creation and for the individual to experience this field is to know that one is truly the Self and the creation, simultaneously. With reference to our definition of knowledge one must first gain the awareness by directly experiencing this field. Direct experience promotes familiarity and understanding. A teacher is necessary to give direction to this experience and to supplement it with explanations about the process and the content. The experience which lacks understanding is hollow, and it is impossible to have full understanding without the experience. This knowledge can not be gained by reading a book, etc.
Intuition is associated with subjective knowledge and truth. It's a way of knowing associated with right brain functioning and is supra-logical or beyond reasoning. It is knowing that gives correct understanding but without the reasoning process. Knowledge comes directly from the field of Consciousness and arises simply from some slight intention or desire to know. The significance of intuition is huge. It enables one to make great leaps of insight in the blink of an eye. Its functioning is suggestive of a characteristic style of functioning associated with great mental and physical health--especially even enlightenment. It can be regarded as the magic which makes for great science--insights about the finer details of reality which are not logical or obvious. Objective knowledge in its pure form depends upon logical reasoning which yields firm understanding to the extent of experience but at great time and effort.
Subjective knowledge is commonly called spiritualistic. Spiritualistic does not mean religious. It does imply a belief that something more fundamental than matter and energy exists and that this is indeed an intelligent and all-powerful field or entity. Some Eastern philosophies hold creation exists as an evolute of a desire of this unmanifest intelligence. This belief arises from the fundamental law that nothing exists without cause. There is an interesting ramification of this law in consideration of subjective knowledge. Experiencing and understanding the nature of nature is beyond the ability of the senses because the fundamental reality is more subtle than matter or energy. The senses exist as a tool for this intelligent, creative field to experience diverse, but gross, aspects of its own nature but not to experience itself directly. The ultimate nature of matter can be experienced and understood only by that which is subtle, namely the mind. Thus subjective knowledge gives expression to a path which attempts to gain experience with or awareness of reality at its most fundamental level...the awareness of being awareness, itself.
The substance and scope of subjective knowledge is called philosophy. Traditionally it includes metaphysics, aesthetics, ethics, logic, epistemology and so on. It represents our attempts to understand the universe at some very abstract and unifying level. It asks questions such as why, how, purpose, nature, meaning of life, and so on. Interestingly, both psychology and physiology are integral parts of some philosophical systems which underlie Ayurveda. That is, psychology and physiology can not be understood in a context separate from the fundamental questions of meaning, purpose, and creation, etc. We will discuss this connection later. In summary we want to re-state the distinctions between objective and subjective knowledge. When the object of attention is sensory this is objective knowledge and when it is psychic it is subjective. Each term serves to signify both a way of knowing and a kind of knowledge, i.e. a different object of perception.
Among philosophers these terms usually give rise to the discussion of truth versus knowledge and facts. The objective knowledge we have been discussing is associated with facts while truth is associated with the purpose of life, subjective knowledge, etc. Logical reasoning applied to our experiences never leads to the ultimate truth (meaning or
purpose of life) but it does lead to other understanding. Meditation and introspection may yield great understanding of meaning and purpose but little awareness of facts. Thus in a way each way of knowing compliments the other to yield a fuller experience and understanding.
There are some interesting implications which derive from these two kinds of knowledge. Objectivity and subjectivity are two terms which attach to their respective kinds of knowledge. Each suggests a different belief about and approach to life. Objectivity trusts the senses and its extensions to discover the details about existence. That is, the entire creation can be understood by an examination of the parts. One's attention and awareness is always directed outside. This person lives in the world. This person is likely to try to control events or to bring change to the course of events. This person is challenged by life, therefore control is a by word of objectivity. This implies a greater concern with what one thinks about rather than what one thinks with. This means that as scientists we spend our time trying to extend our awareness, understanding, and familiarity to the infinite details of existence but without the unifying concerns of meaning, purpose, etc. One motive for this is the desire for understanding which underlies control which enables one to improve one's lot in life so to speak. But, ironically, the ever-growing volume of details makes it impossible for a single person to know "everything." This situation leaves one with a lack of fulfillment because knowledge and understanding are never complete.
Subjectivity, on the other hand, promotes a fundamentally different kind of behavior. It promotes inner contemplation and introspection and less concern with worldly things and events. One is likely to go within for understanding rather than to the external world for answers. There seems to be an awareness of the futility of trying to know everything there is to know. Moreover, this implies a tendency to accept things as they are, assuming implicitly that things are as they should be. This means that one does not try to control life but one tries to experience it. Life is not a challenge to be controlled. This knowledge allows one to comprehend the purpose of life and to act as if one knew all of the details of nature's functioning. It is comprehensive and for this reason it is fulfilling. It might be argued that this orientation is more concerned about what one thinks with. That is, if one could expand one's mind to encompass the infinite creation one could pre-empt the need or desire to "know everything about everything." If one owns in one's awareness that home of all the laws of nature one need not know the details. From this perspective then it can be said that what one thinks about is not so important.
At this point we want to introduce some discussion of psychology because in this model a theory of mind or mental functioning is critical to understanding how the body functions--in health and disease. The mind is a cognitive tool of the subtle field of pure intelligence--Consciousness. It is a universal principle which has many localized expressions. Mind alone is responsible for the production of knowledge and understanding whether from sensory perceptions, or from subjective experiences. The mind's function is to pass this understanding to other functional units of Consciousness, the ego and intellect, which function as filters through which we perceive and react with the environment. Mind has several types of tasks to perform including: thinking, considering, forming hypotheses, attention, and determination. These tasks are performed in three qualitatively distinct modes: balanced (sattvic), active (rajasic), inert (tamasic). All three modes are always functioning and interacting and serve to give direction to thought. At the level of functioning of Consciousness this thought is creative, destructive, dynamic and static. Thus mind literally is responsible for creation. The direction which creation takes depends upon the relative quantitative contribution of each. For example, inertia restrains an active, creative mind to promote balance but if it is excessive relative to the others inertia may stifle all change.
The style of functioning of the mind, or mental state, affects one's choices in life, which in turn affects physiology. Ayurvedists hold that disease is mainly in the body but central to disease etiology is the mind. Mind is responsible for thoughts (for example, for the fulfillment of needs), ideas, beliefs, and memories. These thoughts provide a framework within which a person functions. All choices are made with reference to an idea or belief system or some need. Our thoughts give direction to our actions--actions such as the kind of food we eat or the lifestyle we choose or even the relationships we tend towards. When choices are sattvic then life is healthy and happy, when rajasic life vacillates from pleasure and pain, and when tamasic life is dull, stagnant, sickly.
Some Ayurvedists hold that the mind is psychic, plastic, and insentient. It goes out (or in) to its object of perception and comes back with the form and qualities of that object of perception. Because of the functioning of the ego one identifies with the object and in a real sense becomes that object. The term for this phenomenon is "object-referral." This is the typical manner of functioning for most of mankind. One regards his education, wealth, and accomplishments, etc. as the defining qualities of one's existence. Even our memories with their imprints express as our desires and color the path of our emotions and thinking. "These things are who I am" is the credo. According to Ayurveda this is the fundamental problem of life. The ancient Vedic literature reminds us that when we identify with the body we believe that life is mortal and temporal and that life is suffering and challenging. This is not the true nature of life and this is not true knowledge.
While this discussion is steeped in the language of psychology--becoming through identification--the Ayurvedic paradigm and modern research suggest that this process of becoming is literally a material process. Ayurveda says that we become, in a very literal sense, whatever we experience. Be it the food we eat or the music we listen to and so on. A way of understanding how this works is given by the ancient seers who could access and comprehend the fabric of existence in their meditative states. They affirmed that everything is nothing but vibration--matter is energy and energy is comprised of virtual energy (an extremely pregnant but subtle form of energy). Everything is vibration at the most fundamental level of existence and experiencing a vibration increases that vibration in the body-mind system. There is an ancient dictum: form follows function. The Ayurvedic expression for this dictum is given by: Where ever attention goes that will grow in your life. Conversely, having no experiences can lead to non-formation of related structures. Ayurveda says that excessive, perverted, or non-use of the senses lead to problems.
Recent research with animal models suggests that our brain and other neurological structures are literally shaped/formed by the kinds of experiences the nervous system has to process. Kittens were used in visual stimulus experiments which showed that those subjected to certain visual stimuli in the first few weeks of life could not process any other visual information after those few weeks. Ayurvedic practitioners recount much anecdotal evidence surrounding the development of the fetus in utero which further supports this hypothesis in the human context. The significance of these findings is absolutely critical in its implications for the outcomes of the kinds of experiences and knowledge we pursue in our lives.
An important aspect of mental functioning is governed by the intellect or faculty of discrimination. The intellect has three functions to perform: 1) It must perceive things to be exactly as they are. The twig looks to be a snake but is it? 2) The mind must be capable of willfulness and restraint and recall of all sensory inputs. Sensory experience is dazzling and enticing but the senses used inappropriately cause attachment and aversion. Drug addiction and paranoia are extreme examples of defect of this aspect of the intellect. 3) Memory of everything and especially of self as Self--the source, course, and goal of life--must be upheld at all times. If we forget that our nature is divine we perform in a self-destructive manner. Cancer is also an extreme example of loss of self identity. A cell which loses its sense of purpose--to serve its own needs, the needs of the community, in a creative and fulfilling way--is a menace to itself and to the whole. Whether at the level of a cell or of an organism, memory of distorted patterns of intelligence is self-destructive.
We can understand the importance of knowledge with another example from the Ayurvedic model. Ayurveda holds that an idea--a misunderstanding--a mistake of the intellect is responsible at the most fundamental level for all disease. Earlier we discussed some aspects of truth and knowledge. We stated that truth has a distinctly subject nature. It is precisely that truth is different for each person and when we follow our own truth we may be self-destructive. Each person has an unique set of experiences and conditions of living which gives rise to unique perceptions and conclusions about life. For example, some easily believe that it does not matter if we drink coffee or speed on the highway, eat milk and bananas together, or continually think about an angering experience. Others have direct experience which leads to opposite conclusions. When we ignore authoritative knowledge and our own bodily reactions to our diet, lifestyle, and relationships then our subjective truth conflicts with objective knowledge and facts. When subjective truth does not coincide with what is true then health falters, mentally, emotionally, physically.
If one turns the attention inward and goes beyond thought to its source one experiences that unbounded, eternal field of Existence. This is called "self-referral." Mind literally expands to infinity. Thinking then expresses the wisdom and intelligence of this field. From the law of karma, which we alluded to earlier, which holds that every action or experience begets a result of like quality, one literally becomes the infinite. This field is also the field of love and perfect health, so from the perspective of the Ayurvedist it is paramount that one have direct and frequent experience (awareness, familiarity, and understanding) with this field. This experience nourishes the memory that one is virtually divine. It also nourishes the senses and intellect to perceive things as they really are. And because this is a field of bliss one's attraction to sensory experience pales. Few people seem to be born with even a temporary let alone a permanent awareness of their divine nature so we do need authoritative knowledge of things which help bring one to that status. It is just as important to be aware of the negative side of this law of karma, i.e., if one's thoughts continually focus on negative emotions, feelings, and experiences then one will literally become a manifestation of hate, anger, worry, etc. Research in the field of neuro-immunology has shown that the nervous system cells and cells from many organs in the body have the ability to create protein-like molecules called neuro-peptides. These molecules have the effect to mediate emotions and thoughts to all cells in the body. In effect every cell in the body is a thinking cell. And what one is thinking and feeling is what the body is becoming physically as determined by the chemical action of the neuro-peptides being produced and circulated around the entire body.
Interestingly, Ayurveda has associated certain emotional imbalances with certain organs. This means that there is a telltale physiology associated with a given emotional state as suggested by the neuro-peptide research. For example the lungs are associated with grief and sadness and the colon is associated with fear, anxiety, worry. When there is some defect of physiology in an organ we can look for a corresponding emotional expression of it.
This is the truth about the creative potential of thoughts but it is even more pervasive and subtle than we might have imagined. If one continually puts the mind to work thinking the same negative thoughts the body will definitely express this usage. As stated above, everything that exists is but a coalescence of a frequency or sound. A thought is a sound which may manifest in an infinite degree of subtlety or grossness, depending upon what the thought is and the energy which supports it. In the context of the process of creation the word/idea came first then some energetic expression of it in the form of matter or energy emerged. The entire universe is just an infinite display of thought or sound. At the level of Consciousness sound is an idea or intention which has in it all the mechanics for its fulfillment. This implies that sounds are sought for their creative potential as well as for their ability to provide understanding of creation.
An example of the use of this creative potential of sound is given by the term mantra. Mantras are sounds which have known effects and the Vedic literature is rife with mantras. Any sound qualifies as a mantra in fact but the key is the effect...For example, the word "hate" is a mantra but definitely not a very useful or self-sustaining one. "OM" is another example but it is known to facilitate detachment ..from family, possessions, everything. Mantras for healing or for gaining enlightenment are two important kinds of mantras. Mantras can affect oneself, as well as, something or someone else in the environment. Mantras which promote experiencing transcendental consciousness are the most highly regarded in the spiritual traditions of India. They facilitate gaining the experience of Consciousness (self-realization). But more practically, they engender an unique brain physiology which is at the heart of all bodily functioning. It is said that even the DNA molecules are re-programmed with the regular practice of meditation, thus promoting health at the most basic level of life. Transcending mantras are unique in that they are used so they can be discarded en route to a state of having no mantra, no thoughts.
There is a final point in regard to living life in perfect health. In the foregoing discussion we stated that self-referral is necessary to perfect the functioning of the mind, ego, and intellect which leads to more self-sustaining choices and improved physiology. What needs to be affirmed is that self-referral is a process. It requires that one's attention and awareness must encompass three distinct aspects of any experience: there is an observer, an object of observation, and a linking of these two called the process of observation. Only when one's attention and awareness encompass each and all of these simultaneously can one experience wholeness and health. Wholeness means that one knows oneself to be
the perceiver, the process, and the perceived simultaneously. This is the fundamental truth--The One Truth. We conceive of our universe as composed of opposites but the truth is that there exists a unity of diversity and a continuum of Existence. That which is created is never separate from the creator. Opposites are not really opposites but ways of understanding differences. And one must know that one knows all of this to be true. This obtains only if one's attention is eternally fixed in the "now." One must live life in the present, forget the past with its regrets, or the future with its could be's, should be's, ought to be's. When our memories of the past or fears of the future live in the present then knowledge uses us--we don't use it. When one is aware of one's divine nature the bliss is in every moment of existence...and teachers, traditions, vaidyas, and proper experiences are necessary to bring this possibility to our awareness.
Therefore, in consideration of the relationship of thought, action, and form it is important to have as many nourishing thoughts as possible. One sensible solution is that one could read texts from those traditions named above to re-enforce notions and modes of conduct which are self-defining and self-sustaining. Self-knowledge is not the only knowledge but as we have discussed it is the most important. If one thinks about good rather than bad one has less time left to entertain the negative. We need to have awareness of this kind of knowledge (that there are sources of information which discuss who we are, etc.) and then we can become familiar with it and understand it. We also need to have the direct experience of it as in meditation. It has the power to re-structure and re-program the entire being. And it is also important to be able to understand cause and effect in our life through our objective experiences. So we need to have clear perception and discrimination of reality and our experiences dramatically affect these.
Traditionally, the Ayurvedic physician or vaidya (means: one who knows) has been a formidable source of knowledge. The vaidya is expected to have complete knowledge--knowledge of science, philosophy, and medicine. He, more than others, could restore and maintain health. He could give knowledge of cause and effect of lifestyle, diet, climate, thinking and so on. The vaidya knows the power of ideas, beliefs, and knowledge and utilizes them to create an environment of healing and health. The clinical application of this fact is given in the terms placebo and nocebo. Modern medicine has yet to exploit this power of ideas and belief. Ideas held firmly in belief do lead to healing. On the other hand, modern medicine shamelessly disregards the power of negative words and ideas with its use of such emotion-laden words as cancer, diabetes, tuberculosis, etc. This is but another example of how knowledge can be an impediment to real knowing. The vaidya is held to a higher standard. He is expected to live and speak the knowledge of life--to be aware of his subjective and objective nature--to be enlightened. The vaidya is the ultimate counselor of life.
In this paper we have discussed both the ways of knowing and purposes for knowing where our experiences and knowledge can coalesce into something profound and fulfilling. It enhances our awareness, understanding, and familiarity, with Existence--its objective nature and subjective nature. Correct knowledge and experiences can alleviate disease, avoid discomfort, and produce health. We have discussed how the mind, with its numerous states of functioning can have a dramatic affect on physical structures directly, and indirectly. How we think, what we think about, what we believe, all these mental phenomena affect our physical, emotional, mental health, which proves that there is constant interaction of those spheres we call, psychology, philosophy, physiology. That which we hold to be true can be life-supporting or self-destructive. We believe that we have shown that knowledge as both end and means, organizing power as one seer describes it, is everything in the pursuit of health. And that teachers, vaidyas, and traditions are crucial to assisting us find fullness of understanding and appreciation of our experiences--both subjective and objective--understanding that life is a constant change in the ever-changing kaleidoscope of bliss. Then we become familiar with our status as eternal and unbounded bliss. This is the promise and fulfillment of the science of Ayurveda, the knowledge of life.
(C) Copyright 1997 Michael Dick All Rights Reserved www.ayurveda-florida.com