(Source: Richard Coveny)
Alcohol/Liqueur - When making substitutions for alcohols, it is important to keep the volume of liquid in the recipe the same as originally called for. Depending on the recipe, apple juice or chicken broth often makes a good substitution for wine. When using flavored liqueurs, extracts can be substituted if you make up the balance of the liquid with water. For example, if a recipe calls for 2 tablespoons Grand Marnier you could use 1/2 teaspoon orange extract. Just be sure to get the same level of orange flavor. This may take some experimentation.
Allspice, Ground - 1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/2 teaspoon ground cloves plus 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg can be substituted for 1 teaspoon ground allspice.
Baking Powder - 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar can be substituted for 1 teaspoon baking powder.
Baking Soda - There is no recommended substitute for baking soda.
Bouquet Garni - 1/2 teaspoon each dried parsley flakes, dried thyme leaves and 1 bay leaf (crushed) can be substituted for 1 teaspoon bouquet garni.
Butter - Unsalted butter can be substituted for regular butter in any recipe. It is NOT necessary to add salt. Whipped butter may be used as a substitute, based on weight, not volume. LAND O LAKES® Soft Baking Butter with Canola Oil can also be substituted for regular butter in any baking recipe right from the refrigerator -- no need to soften! Stick margarine made from vegetable oil can also be substituted for butter. Any of these LAND O LAKES® products can be used successfully in baking and cooking: LAND O LAKES® Butter, LAND O LAKES® Soft Baking Butter with Canola Oil, LAND O LAKES® Margarine, and LAND O LAKES® Fresh Buttery TasteTM Spread. Butter with Canola Oil - LAND O LAKES® Butter can be substituted for LAND O LAKES® Soft Baking Butter with Canola Oil in any recipe -- just remember to soften it first.
Buttermilk - 1 tablespoon vinegar plus enough milk to equal 1 cup OR 2/3 cup plain yogurt plus 1/3 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup buttermilk.
Chervil - 1 teaspoon dried parsley flakes plus 1/8 teaspoon rubbed, dried sage can be substituted for 1 teaspoon chervil.
Chicken or Beef Broth - 1 cup hot water and 1 teaspoon instant bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) can be substituted for 1 cup broth.
Chocolate Chips, Semi-Sweet - 6 ounces semi-sweet chocolate, chopped, can be substituted for 1 cup (6 ounces) semi-sweet chocolate chips. When substituting for chocolate chips, make sure to use the same type of chocolate (i.e. semi-sweet, milk).
Chocolate, Semi-Sweet - 3 tablespoons chocolate chips OR 1 square (1-ounce) unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon sugar can be substituted for 1 square (1-ounce) semi-sweet chocolate. 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 7 tablespoons sugar plus 1/4 cup fat can be substituted for 6 ounces semi-sweet chocolate. Bittersweet chocolate can be substituted for semisweet chocolate. There could be a slight difference in texture and flavor.
Chocolate, Sweet Baking (German's) - 1/2 cup unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/3 cup sugar and 3 tablespoons fat can be substituted for 4 ounces German's sweet baking chocolate.
Chocolate, Unsweetened - 1 2/3 ounce semisweet chocolate (reduce sugar in recipe by 2 teaspoons) OR 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or shortening can be used instead of 1 ounce unsweetened baking chocolate.
Cinnamon, Ground - 1/2 teaspoon ground allspice or 1 teaspoon ground cardamom can be substituted for 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon.
Cocoa, Unsweetened - Dutch-processed cocoa may be substituted for unsweetened cocoa.
Coffee - 1/2 cup hot water and 1 teaspoon instant coffee granules can be substituted for 1/2 cup strong brewed coffee.
Cooking Sprays - Can usually be successfully substituted for shortening to prepare baking sheets and baking pans.
Cornstarch - 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour or 2 teaspoons arrowroot starch can be substituted for 1 tablespoon cornstarch.
Corn Syrup, Light - 1 cup dark corn syrup can be substituted for 1 cup light corn syrup, and vice versa. (Note: Flavor will be affected somewhat.) OR substitute 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cup liquid.
Cream (20% fat) (Coffee Cream) - 3 tablespoon butter plus 7/8 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup cream (in baking and cooking).
Cream (40% fat) (Whipping Cream) - 1/3 cup butter plus 3/4 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup cream (in baking and cooking).
Cream of Tartar - There is no recommended substitution for cream of tartar.
Eggs - 2 egg whites can be substituted for 1 whole egg. 1/4 cup refrigerated egg substitute can be substituted for one egg.
Egg Whites - Meringue powder can be substituted for egg whites in a meringue application only. Three egg whites equal approximately 3 tablespoons meringue powder plus 6 tablespoons water. Powdered egg whites may be substituted in most recipes requiring egg whites. Follow directions on powdered egg whites container.
Flavor Oils - It is not recommended that you substitute flavor extracts for flavor oils. Oil based flavorings are necessary for hard candies because the liquid portion of the extracts add too much liquid, causing steam, to the hard candy syrup.
Flour, All-purpose - Substitute self rising flour minus the salt in yeast bread recipes for all-purpose flour. Substitute self rising flour minus the salt and baking powder in quick bread recipes for all-purpose flour.
1 cup plus 2 tablespoons cake flour can be substituted for 1 cup all-purpose flour.
20% of all-purpose flour can be substituted with another grain, such as rye, buckwheat, or soy flour in recipes such as quick breads and pancakes
If you are interested in reducing your carbohydrate intake, you can use flour that is lower in carbohydrates, such as whole wheat, soy, multi-grain or nut flour like almond. For each cup of all-purpose flour, substitute ¾ cup all-purpose flour and ¼ cup of the lower carbohydrate alternative flour.
Flour (as thickener) - 1/2 tablespoon cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch, arrowroot starch, or 1 tablespoon quick-cooking tapioca can be substituted for 1 tablespoon all-purpose flour.
Flour, Cake - 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour can be substituted for 1 cup cake flour.
Flour, Self-Rising - 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt can be substituted for 1 cup self-rising flour.
Garlic - 1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon instant minced garlic or 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder can be substituted for 1 clove minced garlic.
Ginger, ground - 1/2 teaspoon ground mace plus 1/2 teaspoon grated lemon peel can be substituted for 1 teaspoon ground ginger.
Herbs - 1 tablespoon fresh herbs equals 1 teaspoon dried herbs.
Honey - 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cup liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe) can be substituted for 1 cup honey.
Italian Seasoning - 1/4 teaspoon EACH dried oregano leaves, dried marjoram leaves and dried basil leaves plus 1/8 teaspoon rubbed dried sage can be substituted for 1 1/2 teaspoons Italian seasoning.
Milk, Sweetened Condensed - 1 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 2/3 cup granulated sugar, 1/2 cup boiling water and 3 tablespoons melted butter can be substituted for 1 (14-ounce) can sweetened condensed milk.
Milk, Whole - 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water OR 1 cup water plus 1/3 cup nonfat evaporated dry milk powder OR 1 cup skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter can be substituted for 1 cup whole milk. NOTE: Whole milk is higher in total fat than low-fat milk. If a baking recipe calls for whole milk, you may be able to substitute a low-fat milk variety like skim, 1% or 2% fat. Be cautious about substituting skim milk in pudding, custard, and sauce recipes. These recipes rely on the dairy fat for added texture and flavor. Baked items such as cakes and cookies can usually tolerate the use of low-fat milk.
Molasses - 1 cup light molasses can be substituted for 1 cup dark molasses.
Mustard, Dry - 1 tablespoon prepared mustard can be substituted for 1 teaspoon dry mustard.
Mustard, Prepared - 1/2 teaspoon dry mustard plus 2 teaspoons vinegar can be substituted for 1 tablespoon prepared mustard.
Nutmeg, Ground - 1 teaspoon ground allspice or 1 teaspoon ground cloves or 1 teaspoon ground mace can be substituted for 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg.
Oats - Old fashioned rolled oats and quick cooking oats can be used interchangeably in baking recipes.
Oil - 1 cup melted butter, margarine or shortening can be substituted for 1 cup oil. Note: Recipe results may vary. Texture and appearance may be affected.
Onion - 1/4 cup instant minced onion, flaked onion OR 1 teaspoon onion powder can be substituted for 1 cup (1 medium) chopped onion. (OR 1 teaspoon hing)
Poultry Seasoning - 1/4 teaspoon ground thyme plus 3/4 teaspoon ground sage can be substituted for 1 teaspoon poultry seasoning.
Pumpkin Pie Spice - 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger and 1/8 teaspoon EACH ground nutmeg and ground cloves can be substituted for 1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice.
Raisins - Substitute another chopped dried fruit for raisins. Golden raisins, dark raisins, and currants can be used interchangeably in baking recipes.
Salt - Kosher salt, iodized salt, sea salt, or a non-sodium containing salt substitute may be used for table salt in baking.
Shortening - 1 cup butter or margarine can be substituted for 1 cup shortening. When using shortening in place of butter or margarine, 1 tablespoon milk or water for each 1/2 cup shortening used may need to be added. DO NOT substitute vegetable oil for shortening when recipe calls for melting the shortening.
Sour Cream - 1 cup plain yogurt can be substituted for 1 cup sour cream.
Sugar - 1 cup firmly packed brown sugar can be substituted for 1 cup sugar. Note: Flavor will be affected somewhat.
1/2 cup corn syrup or molasses (reduce liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup) can be substituted for 1 cup granulated sugar.
1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/8 teaspoon cornstarch processed in a food processor fitted with a metal blade can be substituted for powdered sugar.
Sugar, Light Brown - 1/2 cup firmly packed dark brown sugar and 1/2 cup sugar can be substituted for 1 cup firmly packed light brown sugar. (Slight flavor differences will occur.) 1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 tablespoons molasses can be substituted for 1 cup light brown sugar.
Tomato Sauce - 1/2 cup tomato paste plus 1/2 cup water can be substituted for 1 cup tomato sauce.
Vanilla Extract - Other flavorings, such as almond, peppermint, rum or lemon may be substituted for vanilla extract (flavor differences will occur.)
Wine - 1/2 cup fruit juice can be substituted for 1/2 cup wine in desserts. 1/2 cup chicken broth can be substituted for 1/2 cup wine in savory recipes.
Yeast - 1 (.6-ounce) cake of compressed yeast can be substituted for 1 (1/4-ounce) packet of active dry yeast. 2 1/2 teaspoons quick rise or 2 teaspoons instant dry yeast can be substituted for 1 (1/4-ounce) packet of active dry yeast.